Back pain is often a common symptom of many disease conditions and the back pain may range from simple or dull pain to sudden and sharp pain. If the pain persists for few days, it is acute pain whereas if continues for more than 3 months, it is considered as chronic pain. In most cases, back pain may resolve without any treatment however if persists for more than 3 days, medical intervention is necessary.
Congenital scoliosis is the lateral curvature of spine that occurs in children whose vertebrae are abnormally formed during their development in the womb. This abnormality develops in the fetus at 4 to 6 weeks of gestation. It is present at birth and may be associated with other health problems such as kidney or bladder diseases.
Early onset scoliosis
Early-onset scoliosis is the abnormal lateral curvature of spine that occurs in children who are less than 5 years. There is no known cause for a young child to have developed scoliosis at this age. This condition includes children with congenital scoliosis (present at birth) and infantile scoliosis (birth to 3 years). Early onset scoliosis is associated with congenital chest deformities, neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy, muscular disease, and tumor. Early-onset scoliosis generally affects boys more often than girls.
General information on Spine
The spine, also called the back bone provides stability, smooth movement, and protects the delicate spinal cord. It consists of bony segments called vertebrae and fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs. The vertebrae and discs form a column from the head to the pelvis providing symmetry to the body. The spine is divided into 3 major parts, the cervical (neck), thoracic (mid back), and the lumbar (low back).
Scoliosis is a condition where there is abnormal lateral curvature of the spine that makes the spine appear as "S" or "C" curve. It can occur at any age and is seen more frequently in girls than boys. The exact cause of idiopathic scoliosis is unknown in most of the cases.
Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback. The thoracic portion of the spine normally has a "C"-shaped curve, but excessive forward curve in the spine leads to kyphosis. Kyphosis may develop as a result of metabolic problems, neuromuscular conditions, spina bifida, osteoporotic fractures, traumatic injuries and slippage of vertebral disc. Kyphosis most commonly affects the thoracic spine, but can involve the cervical and lumbar portions too.
Low back strain
Low back strain or lumbar strain occurs when the muscle or the tendon in the lower back gets stretched or torn. It is caused by lifting heavy objects or overload, sitting or standing for a longer time, direct blow over the area, or sports such as basketball, baseball, or golf that involve sudden twisting of lower back can also lead to strain. The risk factors such as excess low back curvature, weak abdominal muscles, and forwardly tilted pelvis can increase the risk of this injury.
A neuromuscular disease is a disorder that affects the muscles and its nervous control. Neuromuscular disorders are the conditions caused by impaired neuronal activity of the nerves that control the voluntary muscle activities. Children's with neuromuscular disorders often experience muscle pain or weakness, muscle twitching, cramping, numbness and tingling, muscle stiffness causing joint deformities and sometimes difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Neuromuscular disorders in children may be present at the time of birth or may be developed at later stages of life. Abnormality of different components of the lower motor neuron may cause different disorders.
Other congenital vertebral anomalies
The spine is made up of group of bones called vertebrae. Vertebral anomalies are defects or malformations of the spine that are present during birth. These defects are categorized into malformation, disruption, and deformation.
Spina bifida is the most common birth defect which is known as neural tube defect that affects the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Most commonly it occurs in the first month of pregnancy because of incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings.